30 dic. 2004

Más sociable que un Guppy


Los peces no son simples animales con memoria corta sino que viven en complejas redes sociales, eligen a sus compañeros y los recuerdan, dice un grupo de científicos británicos.

29 dic. 2004

Mystery of Mars rover's 'carwash' rolls on


NASA's Mars rover Opportunity seems to have stumbled into something akin to a carwash that has left its solar panels much cleaner than those of its twin rover, Spirit. A Martian carwash would account for a series of unexpected boosts in the electrical power produced by Opportunity's solar panels.

26 dic. 2004

Evolution Shares a Desk With 'Intelligent Design'


Lark Myers, a blond, 45-year-old gift shop owner, frames the question and answers it. "I definitely would prefer to believe that God created me than that I'm 50th cousin to a silverback ape," she said. "What's wrong with wanting our children to hear about all the holes in the theory of evolution?"

Charles Darwin, squeeze over. The school board in this small town in central Pennsylvania has voted to make the theory of evolution share a seat with another theory: God probably designed us.

If it survives a legal test, this school district of about 2,800 students could become the first in the nation to require that high school science teachers at least mention the "intelligent design" theory. This theory holds that human biology and evolution are so complex as to require the creative hand of an intelligent force.

"The school board has taken the measured step of making students aware that there are other viewpoints on the evolution of species," said Richard Thompson, of the Thomas More Law Center, which represents the board and describes its overall mission as defending "the religious freedom of Christians."

Board members have been less guarded, and their comments go well beyond intelligent design theory. William Buckingham, the board's curriculum chairman, explained at a meeting last June that Jesus died on the cross and "someone has to take a stand" for him. Other board members say they believe that God created Earth and mankind sometime in the past ten thousand years or so.

"If the Bible is right, God created us," said John Rowand, an Assemblies of God pastor and a newly appointed school board member. "If God did it, it's history and it's also science."

This strikes some parents and teachers, not to mention most evolutionary biologists, as loopy science. Eleven parents have joined the American Civil Liberties Union and filed suit in federal court in Harrisburg seeking to block mention of intelligent design in high school biology, arguing it is religious belief dressed in the cloth of science.

"It's not science; it's a theocratic idea," Bryan Rehm, a former science teacher in Dover and a father of four. "We don't have enough time for science in the classroom as it is -- this is just inappropriate."

This is a battle fought in many corners of the nation. In Charles County, school board members recently suggested discarding biology textbooks "biased towards evolution." In Cobb County, in suburban Atlanta, the local school board ordered that stickers be placed inside the front cover of science textbooks stating: "Evolution is a theory, not a fact." State education boards in Ohio and Kansas have wrestled with this issue, as well.

In 1987, the U.S. Supreme Court seemed to settle this question, ruling that Louisiana could not make creationism a part of the science curriculum. The state, Justice William J. Brennan wrote, cannot "restructure the science curriculum to conform with a particular religious viewpoint." (Justice Antonin Scalia dissented, arguing that creationism could be "valuable scientific data that has been censored from the classrooms by an embarrassed scientific establishment.")

Of late, conservative school boards have launched a counteroffensive, often marching under the banner of intelligent design. This theory has lingered on the margins of mainstream scientific discourse with just enough intellectual heft to force its way into some discussions of evolutionary theory.

Essentially intelligent design posits that the human cell, among other organisms, is too finely tuned to have developed by chance. "The human cell is irreducibly complex -- what we find in the cell is stuff that looks strongly like it was designed by an intelligence," said Michael J. Behe, a biology professor at Lehigh University and leading advocate of intelligent design.

Behe acknowledges this theory might lead one to postulate the existence of a supernatural force, such as God. But he said this is unknown and rejects those who would portray him as a creationist. "Our starting point is from science, not from Scripture," Behe said.

Few biologists buy that. There is, they say, a central evolutionary theory embraced by mainstream scientists worldwide: That life on Earth has evolved over billions of years and in fits and starts from one-celled organisms to modern humans. That this theory is pockmarked with unexplained gaps, and subject to debate, is how science is crafted.

"People have an impatience about science," said Kenneth R. Miller, a Brown University biologist and author of the biology textbook used in Dover. "They think it's this practical process that explains how everything works, but that's the least interesting part.

"We understand a lot of the mechanisms of evolution but it's what we don't understand that makes it exciting."

Even today many residents are not sure how Dover, a former farm hamlet become a bedroom community for York and Harrisburg, came to occupy the ramparts in a century-long war over Darwin's theories.

In the 18th century, an erudite French shopkeeper settled in this valley and gave the name Voltaire to his village. German and English settlers, a local history notes, soon discovered that Voltaire was "a French atheist" and "a disbeliever in revealed theology" and changed the town's name.

Dover's modern politics are resolutely Republican -- President Bush polled 65 percent of the vote here -- and its cultural values are Christian, with an evangelical tinge. To drive its rolling back roads is to count dozens of churches, from Lutheran to United Church of Christ, Baptist, Pentecostal and Assemblies of God.

Many here speak of a personal relationship with Christ and of their antipathy to evolutionary theory (A Gallup poll found that 35 percent of Americans do not believe in evolution). Steve Farrell, a friendly man and owner of a landscaping business, talked of Darwin and God in the Giant shopping center parking lot.

"We are teaching our children a theory that most of us don't believe in." He shook his head. "I don't think God creates everything on a day-to-day basis, like the color of the sky. But I do believe that he created Adam and Eve -- instantly."

Back in the town center, Norma Botterbusch talks in her jewelry store, which has been a fixture here for 40 years. "We are a very lenient town," she said. "But why should a minority get to file a lawsuit and dictate school policy? Most of our kids already know who created them."

The evolution revolution in Dover began as a dispute about property taxes. The previous school board spent too much money, and a conservative group defeated them. Last June, board member Buckingham criticized a new biology textbook as "laced with Darwinism." He added, according to the ACLU's lawsuit, that "our country was founded on Christianity and our students should be taught as such."

Neither Buckingham nor the board president nor the school superintendent responded to requests for interviews.

In October, the Dover school board passed this motion: "Students will be made aware of gaps/problems in Darwin's theory and of other theories of evolution including, but not limited to, intelligent design. Note: Origins of Life is not taught."

Several board members resigned in protest. When the remaining board members chose replacements, they subjected certain candidates to withering questions. "I was asked if I was a liberal or conservative, and if I was a child abuser," recalled Rehm, who was known as an outspoken opponent of intelligent design.

In the end, the York Daily Record reported that the board picked a fundamentalist preacher, a home-schooler who does not send his kids to public school for religious reasons, and two more who in effect pledged to support the board.

Dover's evolution policy has left many teachers deeply uncomfortable. One science teacher noted that he avoids talking about the origins of life. "We don't do the monkeys-to-man controversy," he said. "It's just not worth the trouble."

The Discovery Institute in Seattle, which is regarded as a leader in intelligent design theory, also opposes the Dover school board's policy in part because it seems to take three steps into old-fashioned creationism. "This theory needs to be debated in the scientific sphere," said Paul West, a senior fellow. "It's much too soon to require anyone to teach it in high school."

Miller, the Brown University biologist and textbook author, hopes the day that it is taught in high school never arrives. "It's very clear that intelligent design has become a stalking-horse," Miller said. "If these school boards had their druthers, they would teach Noah's flood and the 6,000-year-old design of Earth.

"My fear is that they are making real headway in the popular imagination."

24 dic. 2004

Biblical King Solomon Treasure Turns Out to Be Fake


A tiny ivory pomegranate once believed to be the only relic of King Solomon's biblical era Jewish Temple turns out not to be an artifact from the holy shrine, the Israel Museum said on Friday.
Israeli experts have determined the thumb-sized object is a lot older than believed, dating to the 13th or 14th Century BC, rather than to the 8th Century BC, which scholars say was around the time of Solomon.

23 dic. 2004

La NASA detecta decenas de galaxias 'recién nacidas'


Miles de millones de años después del "nacimiento" de un gran número de galaxias, una aeronave de la NASA ha detectado a menos de 4.000 millones de años luz de la Tierra docenas de galaxias 'recién nacidas', tan jóvenes como era la Vía Láctea hace 10.000 millones de años.

Estos inesperados "bebés" cósmicos fueron descubiertos por la nave exploradora Galaxy Evolution, que logró detectarlas debido a las grandes cantidades de rayos ultravioletas que emitían a medida que se formaban estrellas a partir de elementos gaseosos, dijeron el martes los astrónomos encargados de la misión.

20 dic. 2004

Science in a spin over spider web


Israeli scientists have come up with a way to genetically engineer spiders' webs without the help of the eight-legged creatures.

The development, carried out during the past two years at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, potentially paves the way for commercial development of the fiber, said to be stronger than silk.

La NASA estudia plantar pinos en el planeta Marte


Científicos mexicanos y estadounidenses estudian las causas de la resistencia de los pinos que crecen en las laderas de la montaña más alta de México, el Pico de Orizaba, para plantarlos en Marte. Los científicos analizan desde hace años la sorprendente adaptación y resistencia de los árboles de esa especie que crecen en esa montaña, de 5.647 metros de altura, en condiciones tan adversas como el frío y la falta de oxígeno.

Otro paso hacia la vida artificial


Investigadores en la Universidad Rockefeller en los Estados Unidos están dando los primeros pasos en la tentativa por crear una forma de vida artificial.

Sus creaciones, pequeñas vesículas sintéticas que pueden procesar (expresar) genes, se asemejan a una forma básica de célula biológica.

17 dic. 2004

La Ciencia de 2004


Alguna vez Marte fue cálido, húmedo y salado, es decir, reunió las características necesarias para albergar vida tal y como se conoce en nuestro planeta. El descubrimiento realizado el pasado mes de marzo por los robots exploradores de la NASA ha sido calificado por la revista 'Science' como el hito científico de 2004.

Esa es, a juicio de los responsables de la revista editada por la Asociación Americana por el Avance de la Ciencia, la noticia científica más destacada de un año rodeado de polémica.

16 dic. 2004

Cream of the crop


Millions of users now find it hard to imagine life without the internet - without email, instant messaging, web search engines and online trading or gaming.
Over the past decade since Online was launched, it's the web that has made the difference. It has made it easier to access all the net's facilities, and encouraged a huge explosion in the number and diversity of websites.

With the web still expanding, we have taken the opportunity to ask Online's readers, contributors, and some of the Guardian's journalists to suggest the 100 most useful sites.

15 dic. 2004

Témpano de hielo bloquea Antártida

Google ha firmado un acuerdo con cinco de las universidades más importantes del mundo para digitalizar los contenidos de sus bibliotecas. Las universidades de Michigan, Stanford, Harvard, Oxford y la Biblioteca Pública de Nueva York han sido las escogidas para este proyecto digital. Así los internautas tendrán la posibilidad de visitar las páginas escaneadas de los libros públicos, ya sea para investigación o una simple consulta.

Google digitalizará los libros de cinco de las mejores universidades del mundo


Google ha firmado un acuerdo con cinco de las universidades más importantes del mundo para digitalizar los contenidos de sus bibliotecas. Las universidades de Michigan, Stanford, Harvard, Oxford y la Biblioteca Pública de Nueva York han sido las escogidas para este proyecto digital. Así los internautas tendrán la posibilidad de visitar las páginas escaneadas de los libros públicos, ya sea para investigación o una simple consulta.

14 dic. 2004

Anatomia del puente más alto del mundo

Retiree Duped by Naked Invitation


An 81-year-old German dropped his trousers and lost his wallet when two young women asked him to join them in a nude photo shoot but they fled with his belongings as he stripped, police said Monday.
"After the pensioner had removed his trousers in eager anticipation, the women left in a hurry," taking the man's wallet with about 250 euros in cash, police in the western city of Wiesbaden said in a statement.

A Species in a Second: Promise of DNA 'Bar Codes'


When an astronaut sets foot on an alien planet and sees moving shadows in a nearby wood, he whips out a scanning device that immediately identifies the menacing life-form, flashing up a photo of its species and an assessment of its aggressive intent.

If such devices are standard equipment for visiting distant planets, why can't we have them here at home where we really need them? Less than a fifth of the earth's 10 million species of plants and animals have been cataloged, and taxonomists are backlogged with requests to apply their specialist knowledge to identification problems.

Google Is Adding Major Libraries to Its Database


Google, the operator of the world's most popular Internet search service, plans to announce an agreement today with some of the nation's leading research libraries and Oxford University to begin converting their holdings into digital files that would be freely searchable over the Web.

8 dic. 2004

How a "safe haven" could help save Hubble


An “out-of-the-box” plan to put a new space habitat in orbit could be a leading contender for saving the Hubble Space Telescope, private-sector analysts say in a proposal being prepared for NASA. The habitat could be used as an emergency safe haven during the Hubble servicing mission, and then could serve as a base for wider commercial and exploratory space travel.

7 dic. 2004

Ninja beg

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Solar storms smack a comet


Astronomers have pieced together what appears to be the first direct evidence that solar storms can wreck havoc with comets, destroying the ion tails of icy wanderers in a collision of highly charged particles.

But the effect is not permanent and may serve as a marker for scientists trying to track solar storms known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as they blow out into space.

Star's pulse of radiation is strongest ever


The brightest pulse of radiation ever seen has come from a pulsar nearly 12,000 light years away. Lasting less than 15 billionths of a second (15 nanoseconds), the burst was recorded by a massive radio telescope at Tidbinbilla in Australia.

Although the star was discovered decades ago, it is only now that telescopes have become sensitive enough to record such a fleeting phenomenon.

String Theory, at 20, Explains It All (or Not)


By uniting all the forces, string theory had the potential of achieving the goal that Einstein sought without success for half his life and that has embodied the dreams of every physicist since then. If true, it could be used like a searchlight to illuminate some of the deepest mysteries physicists can imagine, like the origin of space and time in the Big Bang and the putative death of space and time at the infinitely dense centers of black holes.

2 dic. 2004

Nueva tecnología para producir 'nanoestructuras'


Una nueva tecnología para la producción de nanoestructuras, 60.000 veces más delgadas que el grosor de un pelo humano, ha sido presentada en un congreso en Viena. El llamado procedimiento de "nanoimprenta" representa una alternativa "económica y segura" para obtener estructuras de dimensiones microscópicas que se usan, entre otras muchas aplicaciones, en la electrónica.

Con los procedimientos litográficos relativamente caros y lentos que se vienen aplicando hasta ahora se alcanzaba tan sólo una reducción del material de unos 50 nanómetros (la millonésima parte de un milímetro), mientras que mediante la exposición a luz ultravioleta de onda corta, a unos 20 nano metros.

30 nov. 2004

Facial reconstruction may help solve mystery of biblical proportions


Is this Pharaoh's firstborn? When artists transformed the measurements of a 3,000-year-old Egyptian skull into a reconstructed face, they came up with a pointed nose and chin more suited for a caricature than the son of a pharaoh.

22 nov. 2004

La casa del mañana, según Microsoft


La llave es la palma de la mano, los interruptores 'escuchan' y las paredes 'hablan'. El futuro de los hogares según Microsoft es introducir la tecnología más vanguardista en un entorno de hogar tradicional. "Que no se vea, pero que funcione", afirma John Gallagher, encargado de mostrar al Navegante el interior de la Casa del Futuro, en su versión 2004.

La casa obedece al nombre de 'Grace', en honor a la vicealmirante Grace Murray Hopper, matemática y pionera en el campo de la computación durante los años cuarenta. "Grace, ¿qué hora es?", pregunta John. Inmediatamente una suave voz femenina contesta y da la hora exacta, mientras que sobre la pared se proyecta información meteorológica y las luces se regulan automáticamente.

19 nov. 2004

'Google Scholar', la versión beta de un buscador para docentes y científicos


Google, el buscador 'on line', ha lanzado su nueva apuesta, 'Google Scholar', un producto especializado en búsquedas académicas, como tesis doctorales o informes técnicos. 'Google Scholar', cuya versión beta se encuentra en la dirección scholar.google.com, alcanza un amplio espectro de materiales, desde informática a física o derecho, y emplea algoritmos especialmente diseñados para el entorno académico.

Descubren posible "eslabón perdido"


Un grupo de paleontólogos catalanes descubrió los restos de un primate prehistórico que podría haber sido un antepasado de los simios modernos y los seres humanos.

El esqueleto parcial de este "eslabón perdido" fue encontrado en un yacimiento de Hostalets de Pierola (Barcelona) por investigadores del Instituto de Paleontología Miquel Crusafont de Sabadell.

El ejemplar, bautizado como "Pau", data de hace 13 millones de año, una época de la cual se han encontrados muy pocos restos de simios.

18 nov. 2004

Bellezas naturales en peligro


Una delegación de científicos ecologistas lanzó una nueva iniciativa para que se emprendan medidas para afrontar el calentamiento del planeta.

8 nov. 2004

Saint Louis County Police Department "10" Codes

Saint Louis County Police Department "10" Codes:

The primary reasons for using ten signals in radio communications are: (1) decrease in errors caused by misunderstanding the transmitted message and (2) saving of air time by minimizing unnecessary repeats and clarifications.
10-0 - Use Caution
10-1 - Signal Weak
10-2 - Signal Good
10-3 - Stop transmitting/Stand-By
10-4 - Affirmative/Everything is Okay
10-5 - Relay To...
10-6 - Busy
10-7 - Out Of Service
10-8 - In service
10-9 - Repeat
10-10 - Fight In Progress
10-11 - Animal Problem
10-12 - Stand By, Remain Alert, Stop
10-13 - Weather - Road Report
10-14 - Report Of Prowler
10-15 - Civil Disturbance
10-16 - Domestic Trouble
10-17 - Meet Complainant
10-18 - Urgent
10-19 - Return to...
10-20 - Location
10-21 - Phone Number/Person
J1 - At Your Convenience
10-22 - Disregard
10-23 - Arrived at Scene
10-24 - Assignment Completed
10-25 - Report in Person
10-26 - Detaining Subject, Expedite
10-27 - Drivers License Information
10-28 - Vehicle Registration Information
10-29 - Check Record for Wanted
J1 - Misdemeanor Arrest Record
J2 - Felony Arrest Record
J3 - Considered Dangerous
GM - Known Gang Member
SO - Registered Sex Offender
10-30 - Illegal Use of Radio
10-31 - Crime In Progress
10-32 - Man With Gun
10-34 - Riot
10-35 - Major Crime Alert
10-36 - Correct Time
10-37 - Investigate Suspicious Auto
10-38 - Stopping Suspicious Auto
10-39 - Urgent-Use Light & Siren
10-40 - Tactical Situation
10-41 - Begin shift
10-42 - End shift
10-43 - Information
J1 - Confidential
10-44 - Request Permission To Leave Patrol For...
J1 - Personal Relief
J2 - Vehicle Service
J3 - Vehicle Wash
J4 - Meal Break
10-45 - Animal Carcass At...
10-46 - Assist Motorist
10-47 - Emergency Road Repairs Needed
10-48 - Traffic Control
10-49 - Traffic Light Out
10-50 - Traffic Accident
J1 - Minor
J2 - Serious W/ Injuries
J3 - Road Blocked
J4 - Fatality
10-51 - Wrecker Needed (Tow Truck)
10-52 - Ambulance Needed
10-53 - Road Blocked
10-54 - Livestock On Highway
10-55 - Intoxicated Driver
J1 - Charges will be filed
J2 - Make your own case
10-56 - Intoxicated Pedestrian
10-57 - Hit and Run
10-58 - Direct Traffic
10-59 - Convoy Or Escort (Bank Deposit Drop-Off)
10-60 - Squad In Vicinity
10-61 - Personnel In Area
10-62 - Reply To Message
10-63 - Prepare To Make Written Copy
10-64 - Message For Local Delivery
10-65 - Net Message Assignment
10-66 - Message Cancellation
10-67 - Clear To Read Net Message
10-68 - Crime Information
10-69 - Message Received
10-70 - Fire Alarm
10-71 - Advise Nature of Fire
10-72 - Report Progress on Fire
10-73 - Smoke Report
10-74 - Negative
10-75 - In Contact With...
10-76 - En Route
J1 - Prisoner
J2 - Female
J5 - To Make Relief
10-77 - ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival)
10-78 - Need Assistance
10-79 - Notify Coroner
10-80 - Unit-to-Unit Radio Traffic
10-81 - Prisoner in Custody
10-82 - Confidential/Status
J0 - No cars available at this time
J1 - Beat cars available
J2 - Overlay cars available
10-83 - Switch to STLCO Channel 8 (Car-to-Car Channel)
10-84 - Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)
10-85 - Arrival Delayed - Will Be Late
10-86 - CAD Computer Down
10-87 - Pick Up...
10-88 - Advise phone number of...
10-89 - Please Reply / Report Status
10-90 - Bank Alarm
10-91 - Pick Up Subject
10-92 - Contract Service
J1 - Beginning Patrol
J2 - Ending Patrol
10-93 - Blockage
10-94 - Drag Racing
10-95 - Bomb Threat
10-96 - Detain Subject
10-97 - Test Signal
10-98 - Prior Offenses
10-99 - Positive Stolen/Wanted (see J Codes)
J1 - Misdemeanor Wanted or Stolen
J2 - Felony Wanted
J3 - Wanted and Considered Dangerous, May be Armed
10-100 - Police Needed
10-105 - Deceased Body
10-106 - Suspicious Person
10-107 - Check Residence

Commonly Used Police Abbreviations and Police Terminology

Saint Louis County Police
Commonly Used Police Abbreviations and Police Terminology

    ADW -- Assault with a Deadly Weapon

    ADT -- American District Telegraph company. Central station alarm company that serves both residential and business customers with security systems.

    Air-One, Air-Two, Air-Three, Air-Four, Air-Five, Air-Six -- Combined city and county air support units (one fixed wing airplane and four county helicopters plus one Bell OH-58C helicopter from the city), all are housed at Spirit of St. Louis Airport in Chesterfield. It takes from 30 minutes to an hour to get a helicopter in the air. The new partnership would give city police access to a county helicopter rescue team called the Special Operations Aviation Rescue team. It includes firefighters, paramedics, police officers and helicopter pilots. The team can be called to save a person trapped on the roof of a burning building or struggling in swift water. The new combined helicopter unit also will respond in emergencies to surrounding counties in Missouri and Illinois.

    AKA -- Also Known As

    Alarm Sounding (Burglar Alarm) -- An electronic device that automatically detects intrusion (forced entry) or is manually triggered in the event of a robbery or other emergency.

    AMBER -- America's Missing: Broadcast Emergency Response - A coordinated program for a statewide emergency alert when a child is reported endangered. The "AMBER alert" quickly informs the public of specific information regarding the abduction of a child whose life may be in danger. Instigated by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC).

    Anonymous Report -- A victim of a crime or a witness to a crime does not want to pursue any further action with the Police Department or the criminal justice system, but wants the incident investigated on a "make your own case" basis.

    AVL -- Automated Vehicle Location

    B&E -- Breaking and Entering

    BADD -- Boaters Against Drunk Driving

    Bat Van -- Breath Alcohol Testing Unit

    BAC -- Blood Alcohol Content

    BDU -- Battle Dress Uniform

    BEAR Unit -- Break & Enter, Auto theft, and Robbery (?)

    Beat -- Area an officer is assigned to patrol, and answer calls for service.

    Beginning Mileage/Ending Mileage -- When females are transported, the dispatcher is notified of the vehicle unit number, starting mileage and destination. Upon arrival, the officer will give his ending mileage. This is done as a precaution, just in case the female decided to claim she was taken somewhere else and harassed or sexually assaulted. This way they can go back and say "ok, its X many miles from here to there, and that matches the mileage."

    BEOP -- Basic Emergency Operations Plans

    BOLO -- Be On The Look Out

    Business Check -- Patrol officer checks all the doors and windows of an unoccupied building to make sure they are secure and nobody has attempted to break in. Similar to a Vacation House Check.

    CAD -- Computer Aided Dispatching system (Wireless Laptop System). CAD can be used to send information directly between dispatchers and mobile units without the use of voice communication.

    CALEA -- Communications Assistance to Law Enforcement Act

    CAP -- Bureau of Crimes Against Persons

    CARE -- Computer Assisted Report Entry Service (Bu­reau of Central Police Records)

    CAT -- Community Action Teams - One of the tasks the St. Louis County police Community Action Team is to cruise parking lots using laptop computers to check licenses for stolen vehicles. If one is found, they wait for the driver.

    CCW -- Carrying Concealed Weapon

    CID -- Criminal Investigation Department

    CIT -- Crisis Intervention Teams - Utilized to help defuse situations that have the potential of escalating into officer-involved shootings. CIT members' training includes instruction in negotiating skills, defensive tactics and ways to identify and handle people with mental illness or suicidal tendencies without using lethal force.

    COGIS -- County Geographical Information System

    Comes Back -- Information is returned from a remote source

    CPRB -- Citizens' Police Review Board

    CPS -- Child Protective Services

    CrimeMATRIX -- Multi-jurisdictional AnalyTical Repository for Information eXploitation - This database established by the St. Louis County Police Department (STLCPD) and REJIS is an attempt to coordinate information sharing across disconnected data sources (Mugshots, Care Reports, Sex Offenders, Gun Permits, Finger Prints, Parole, Pawn Shop, Death Records) and jurisdictional barriers. Serves local, county and federal law enforcement agencies in the St. Louis area. Access to St. Louis regional CrimeMATRIX data warehouse is through two integrated applications, RAMS and LYNX.

    Criss-Cross (Haynes) -- Database to lookup telephone numbers from street addresses or vice-versa.

    CSU -- Crime Scene Unit

    Caution Code (Caution Indicator) -- Subject's numeric rating issued for officer safety. Prior caution codes cover such known history items as; Armed and Dangerous, Mentally Disturbed, Suicidal Tendencies, Assaulting Police Officers, Escape Risk, etc.

      Caution Code One -- Known to be physically violent.

      Caution Code Two -- Known to be armed.

      Caution Code Three -- Known to have assaulted a police officer.

    CVSA -- Computerized Voice Stress Analysis

    DCI -- Department of Criminal Investigation (detectives)

    DCS -- Distribution of a Controlled Substance

    D&L -- D&L Rideout Services (a tow service)

    DARE -- Drug Abuse Resistance Education

    Destination -- Arrest made, where to take prisoner/subject in custody for booking (10-81), either intake (Clayton/Headquarters) or local precinct station.

    Detail -- Generic term for a special assignment, such as a stakeout, pursuit of suspects, perimeter control, special event crowd control, etc.

    DJO -- Deputy Juvenile Officer

    DJS -- Department of Juvenile Services

    DNR -- Department of Natural Resources (Missouri State)

    DOA -- Dead on Arrival

    DOB -- Date Of Birth

    DOJ -- Department of Justice

    Domestic -- A domestic dispute

    DOP -- Destruction of Property

    DOR -- Department of Revenue

    DPW -- Department of Public Works

    DRT -- Disaster Response Team

    DSN -- Department Serial Number

    DUI -- Driving Under the Influence

    DWI -- Driving While Intoxicated (or Impaired)

    EAS -- Emergency Alert System

    Eighty/Eighty-One - Police Sergeant that acts as the precinct supervisor.

    Emergency Alert Tone -- Button on the HT that can be pushed to summon additional help - "Officer in need of aid" - On the dispatch console a unique number is displayed that can be correlated to the officer who was issued that HT. An aid call is a matter of the utmost urgency, and is responded to by any available unit which is nearby.

    EOC -- Emergency Operations Center

    ERT -- Emergency Response Team

    ETA -- Estimated Time of Arrival

    Ex Parte Order -- A court order issued without the person being present

    Expedite -- Emergency Response; Use Lights & Siren

    Extradite -- Transfer a subject in custody to the agency that issued the arrest warrant and bring him back before a judge in that county (if they are in the extradition area). All warrants have the area of extradition listed and is dependant on the crime the individual is wanted for. The area of extradition can be as little as the county of issuance, statewide, nationwide and anywhere in between. Once a subject comes back with a positive "hit" the dispatcher must contact the issuing agency to ascertain if the warrant is still valid and they will extradite. Sometimes "they will not extradite" means they won't come pick up the subject because no officers are available to transport or the jail is overcrowded and they cannot hold a misdemeanor warrant.

    FEMA -- Federal Emergency Management Agency

    FIR -- Field Interview Report

    FLIR -- Forward-Looking Infrared; A device (in the helicopter) that easily displays hot/cold items (people, cars, fires, etc), however IR cannot penetrate foliage.

    Foot Pursuit -- Chasing suspect on foot (running)

    F/R Query -- FR-Query is a user interface for searching the DOR, MULES, NCIC, and REJIS databases via the in-car laptop computer system.

    FTA -- Failure To Appear - when a person has not appeared for a schedule court hearing. This can be for anything from traffic tickets, misdemeanor arrests and up to and including felonies arrest that they have posted bailed out on. An FTA itself is not a warrant, but the person may indeed have a warrant because they did not make a court appearance.

    FYI -- For Your Information

    Gas Drive Off -- Person (vehicle) left the filling station where gas was pumped into their vehicle without paying for it. (gas-n-dash)

    GIANT -- Gang Intelligence And Narcotic Trafficking

    GM -- Identified street gang member.

    GOA -- Gone on Arrival

    History -- Previous criminal records or tickets.

    Hit -- Computer indication that a detained suspect is wanted or a vehicle is reported stolen.

    HMERT -- Hazardous Materials Emergency Response Team

    Hold-Up Alarm -- A manually triggered alarm (requires human intervention to activate) in the event of a robbery. Holdup alarms cannot be canceled by the alarm company.

    HT -- Handie-Talkie - Hand held (portable) 2-way radio

    IACP -- Illinois Association of Chiefs of Police

    IEMA -- Illinois Emergency Management Agency

    ID (Crime Scene Unit) -- The purpose of the Crime Scene Identification Unit is to help establish what happened (crime scene reconstruction) and to identify the responsible person(s). This is done by carefully documenting the conditions at the crime scene and recognizing all physical evidence.

    ISP -- Illinois State Police

    "J" Codes: (common meaning when not used with a "10" code)

      J0 -- No Cars In service (10-82, J0)

      J1 Muni-## -- Beginning Contract Service Patrol (10-92, J1) with Municipality ## - See Muni-Code Below

      J2 -- Ending Contract Service Patrol (10-92, J2) with Municipality ## - See Muni-Code Below

      J3 -- Road Blocked (10-50, J3)

      J4 -- Meal Break (10-44, J4)

      J5 -- En route to make relief (go home) - usually used when an officer is clearing from a late call.

    JPO -- Juvenile Probation Officer

    Juvenile -- A person under 17 years of age.

    K-9 -- Canine Unit (K9 Unit). The county program now has a total of 12 dogs (some of which are detached to various functions in the department).

    Keyholder -- Someone who has keys to get into the building.

    Land Line -- The public switched telephone network.

    Lane # -- Traffic lanes are numbered in ascending order, from left to right (in a given direction)

    Larceny -- The act of stealing (theft), usually refers to shoplifting.

    LEPC -- Local Emergency Planning Committee

    Long Number -- Social security number (SSN)

    LT -- Lieutenant

    LYNX -- A web-based application that provides detailed summary data about a "person of interest" based upon data originating from multiple and dissimilar information system platforms. Provides flexible search options by person, phone number, vehicle, crime event, or ticket and allows real-time interface to State DOR, NCIC, & MULES. Part of the CrimeMATRIX database that makes use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology.

    MADD -- Mothers Against Drunk Driving

    Major Call -- Officers who are out-of-service on an assignment or self-initiated activity will return to service immediately upon completion of activity. Examples are; homicide, bank robbery, shooting, assist the officer (aid call), situation involving a sniper, armed barricaded person, hostage, civil disorder, explosion, etc.

    MCS -- Major Case Squad

    Minor -- A person under 21 years of age.

    MIP -- Minor In Possession of Alcoholic Beverage

    MobileNet -- IP Based SMR Network (computers in patrol vehicles)

    MODOT -- Missouri Department of Transportation

    MRT Unit -- Mobile Response Team Unit

    MPO -- Military Protective Order

    MSL -- Missouri State License

    MSU -- Municipal Services Unit - provides communications with other County law enforcement agencies.

    MULES -- Missouri Uniform Law Enforcement System

    MVA -- Motor Vehicle Accident

    NCIC -- National Crime Information Center - Nationwide database established under the auspices of the FBI as a service to all criminal justice agencies. The information contained within the NCIC computerized database system assists authorized agencies in criminal justice and related law enforcement objectives, such as apprehending fugitives, locating missing persons, locating and returning stolen property, as well as in the protection of the law enforcement officers encountering the individuals described in the system.

    NCMEC -- National Center for Missing & Exploited Children

    NDPIX -- National Drug Pointer Index - A database managed by the DEA which contains drug investigative targets/subjects. Searches are done and records are accessed through NLETS.

    NHTSA -- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Night Sun -- Mounted spot light found on the helicopter, a very bright search light (approximately 30 million candlepower) that can be focused to light up an area as big as a football field or as small as a car.

    Ninety -- Police Lieutenant that acts as the precinct commander (Watch Commander).

    NLETS -- National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System - Provides law enforcement and criminal justice agencies access to relevant databases and the ability to transmit and receive point–to–point administrative messages.

    No Card on File -- No contact information was found for a retail business. The cards list a contact name, phone number and/or owner of the business.

    Notification -- Deliver message, usually when an officer needs to contact the owner of a recovered auto. Also used when dispatcher needs to make contact with someone inside a bank or business during a holdup alarm sounding call.

    NPO -- Neighborhood Police Officer

    NRN -- No Report Needed

    OAN -- Owner-Applied Number - The identification of farm machinery, construction equipment or anything of value with a unique number (often your driver's license number) to deter theft and aid recovery.

    OBS -- Organic Brain Syndrome (Dementia/Delirium) - sometimes used with the modifier 'extreme' as in "subject is extremely OBS" or "violent OBS."

    OEM -- Office of Emergency Management

    OIS -- Officer Involved Shooting

    On-View -- Officer came upon the incident - Call did not come though the dispatch center.

    ORI -- Originating Agency Identifier File (9-digit code)

    Out at S# -- At station, usually for fuel.

    Overdue -- X number of minutes has past (the length of time the depends on the type of call) since the call was taken in the 911 center with no cars available in the area to respond to it.

    PBT -- Portable Breathalyzer Test

    PCR -- Police Community Relations (Neighborhood Watch meetings, etc.)

    PCS -- Possession of a Controlled Substance

    PCU -- Property Control Unit - Detectives are responsible for logging, storing and maintain all seized evidence for use during criminal prosecution.

    Peace Disturbance -- Loud Music, Loud Party, Barking Dog, etc.

    Person Down -- Individual, usually on the ground, who is not moving for an unknown reason.

    Pending -- Call taken in the 911 center but not yet dispatched to a car.

    PIT Maneuver -- Pursuit Intervention Technique

    PMP -- ??? (related to 10-55)

    POI -- Person of Interest

    Point to Point -- Nationwide radio channel designated for police dispatch centers to communicate with each other.

    POST -- Police Officer Standards and Training

    Primary -- The officer that is responsible for writing the police report on the incident.

    Prisoner Conveyance Unit -- Conveyance Officers are responsible for transporting suspects from the St. Louis County Police Precincts, the St. Louis Metropolitan Police Department and municipal police departments within St. Louis County to the St. Louis County Justice Center in Clayton.

    Probe -- Probationary police officer (PPO), a sworn member who has been employed as a Police Officer for less than one year, sometimes call a "rookie."

    Proceed with Caution -- Standard Response

    PSD -- Public Safety Dispatcher

    Radio Repair -- Transmitter maintenance, car radio programming, dispatch consoles.

    RAMS -- Report Analysis and Mapping System - A desktop application that allows users to map crime events, apply spatial filters, and create a short-list of potential suspects based on the information given about crime events, locations and activities. Part of the CrimeMATRIX database that makes use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology.

    REJIS -- Regional Justice Information System

    Rolling Plate -- Used when an officer wants to run a license plate of an occupied moving vehicle to determine if the vehicle is stolen.

    RSMO -- Revised Statute of Missouri

    SADD -- Students Against Drunk Driving

    Sally Port -- A secure entrance into the police station where prisoners are transferred.

    SARAA ('Sarah') -- St. Louis Area Regional Abduction Alert - A cooperative effort between the area's law enforcement, radio, and television stations to safely recover kidnapped children with help from the public at large. The public is alerted to "be-on-the-lookout" for the child, alleged abductor or the alleged abductor's vehicle and to report any information to the issuing law enforcement agency immediately. Local equivalent of the AMBER Alert Notification Plan.

    SAVE -- Structural Assessment Visual Evaluation Coalition

    Secondary -- Off-duty police officer working a 2nd job, usually as a security guard.

    Seeing Eye -- Word of mouth report by 3rd Party Witness

    SEMA -- State Emergency Management Agency

    SERT -- Suburban Emergency Response Team

    Short Number -- Missouri driver's license number

    Signal x00 -- Hold-Up Alarm Sounding ("x" indicates precinct, 100=1st, 200=2nd, etc.)

    SLCPA -- St. Louis County Police Association

    SLMPD -- Saint Louis Missouri Police Department (City of Saint Louis Police Department)

    SO -- Registered Sex Offender

    SORT -- Team Specialized Operations Response Team

    Spirit -- Spirit of St. Louis Airport in Chesterfield Missouri. Where the County Police Helicopters are hangered and routinely fueled.

    SRO -- School Resource Officer

    SSN -- Social Security Number

    Standby to Keep the Peace -- A police officer is ask to be present at a location (act as a witness) should something occur - heard when the County Sheriff executes an eviction or repossession job, but more often in child custody situations.

    STARS -- State Traffic Accident Reporting System

    Station 10-6 -- Radio channel is closed to normal radio traffic. Emergency traffic only.

    Station Assignment -- Generic term for a special assignment, such as a stakeout, pursuit of suspects, perimeter control, special event crowd control, etc.

    Stealing Over -- Total loss valued at over $500.

    Stealing Under -- Total loss valued at $500 or less.

    Stop Sticks (Spikes) -- Tire deflation device that punctures the tires, causing a leak, but no blowout, and is placed on the road in the path of a specific oncoming vehicle.

    Strong-Arm Robbery -- Where an assailant steals private property without the use of a weapon, usually through verbal (threatening actions) or physical force (overpowering the victim).

    SWAT -- Special Weapons And Tactics

    Traffic -- To stop a vehicle (Traffic Stop) for the purpose of issuing a citation.

    Trash Run -- Officer to stand-by when restaurants open the back door late at night to take the trash out. Usually assigned via MDT.

    TRT -- Tactical Response Team

    UCR -- Uniform Crime Report

    Unfounded -- No basis for a complaint at time of call.

    UUW -- Unlawful Use of a Weapon

    VIN -- 17 Digit Alphanumeric Vehicle Identification Number

    VMCSL -- Violation of Missouri Controlled Substance Laws (Possession of Controlled Substance - Drug offense)

    VOP -- Violation of Probation or Parole

    Washdown -- Use a stream of water (fire department) to remove gasoline or spilled chemicals from the road.

    Watch -- A police work shift. The police workday is divided into three watches. The day watch begins at 7 am; the afternoon watch, at 3 pm; and the night watch, at 11 pm.

    Watch Commander -- A lieutenant who directs all police activities within a precinct district during a specific watch. Some of the watch commander's duties include deploying patrol officers within the precinct and approving arrests.

    Watch Phone -- Cellular phone carried by the watch commander.

    Wrecker -- Generic term for a Tow Truck, sometimes specified as a flatbed rollback, tilt-bed carrier or a heavy-duty tow truck.

    WT -- Walkie Talkie (2-way handheld radio)

    X-Patrol -- Extra patrol: vacation house checks or an area that has seen a recent increase in burglaries/crime.

Police Frequencies, 10-Codes and Unit Numbers

AWH: St. Louis County Police Frequencies, 10-Codes and Unit Numbers

Standard Police Phonetics
This system of communication is used to make the spelling of names and reading of license plates less confusing. Over the radio some letters sound very much alike, such as "D," "B" and "E." In the event of a poor or noisy transmission, the dispatcher might misunderstand one of the letters the officer is saying. To avoid this, the phonetic alphabet was devised and is used to spell out names, license plates or VIN numbers that might be easily confused with a similar-sounding words or letters. A license plate reading "ABC-123" would be broadcast as follows: "Adam, Boy, Charles, One, Two, Three." Another example, the name 'TONY' can be spelled t-o-n-y, t-o-n-i, or t-o-n-e-y, to assure that the message recipient understands the correct spelling it would be broadcast as "Tom, Ocean, Nora, Young." All departments use some form of this system. You might even hear some officers use "niner" for "nine" so it will not be confused with the number "five." Almost all departments across the country use this phonetic alphabet for voice communications.
A Adam H Henry O Ocean V Victor
B Boy I Ida P Paul W William
C Charles J John Q Queen X X-ray
D David K King R Robert Y Young
E Edward L Lincoln S Sam Z Zebra
F Frank M Mary T Tom
G George N Nora U Union

Standard ITU Phonetics

A - Alfa (AL FAH)
B - Bravo (BRAH VOH)
C - Charlie (CHAR LEE) (SHAR LEE)
D - Delta (DELL TAH)
E - Echo (ECK OH)
F - Foxrot (FOK TROT)
G - Golf (GOLF)
H - Hotel (HOH TELL)
I - India (IN DEE AH)
J - Juliet (JEW LEE ETT)
K - Kilo (KEY LOH)
L - Lima (LEE MAH)
M - Mike (MIKE)
N - November (NO VEM BER)
O - Oscar (OSS CAH)
P - Papa (PAH PAH)
Q - Quebec (KEH BECK)
R - Romeo (ROW ME OH)
S - Sierra (SEE AIR RAH)
T - Tango (TANG GO)
U - Uniform (YOU NEE FORM) or (OO NEE FORM)
W - Whiskey (WISS KEY)
Z - Zulu (ZOO LOO)

Note: The boldface syllables are emphasized. The pronuciations show wered for those who speak any of the international languages

Titán, la luna enigmática


Los científicos no saben qué le espera a la sonda Huygens cuando llegue a la luna de Saturno.

Esto a pesar de que la nave nodriza, el Cassini, ha estado muy cerca de la Titán, la mayor de las 18 lunas conocidas de Saturno.

La nave Cassini lanzará la sonda el próximo 25 de diciembre. No se sabe si Huygens aterrizará en un océano de hidrocarburo líquido, en hielo sólido o será tragada por "pantano".

Los científicos británicos a cargo de la misión dicen que no descartan ninguna posibilidad.

En lo más cerca que jamás se ha estado de Titán, el pasado 26 de octubre, el Cassini logró llegar hasta la luna y tomar fotografías de alta definición de su superficie.

5 nov. 2004

Volcán emerge


Una espectacular erupción volcánica, bajo un glaciar de Islandia, ha obligado a las aerolíneas internacionales a desviarse del camino para evitar las emisiones de gas de la explosión.

Desde entonces el volcán Grímsvötn ha estado expulsando lava, con explosiones que han lanzado ceniza a altitudes de hasta 12.000 metros.

4 nov. 2004

Futuro cálido para el Ártico


El Ártico, o Polo Norte, atraviesa actualmente un acelerado proceso de transformaciones, producto del cambio climático, que podrían ser irreversibles.

Así lo indica una investigación publicada por el proyecto conocido como la Evaluación del Cambio Climático en el Ártico, la cual se suma a las reiteradas alertas sobre la manera en que se derriten las capas glaciares en el punto más lejano del norte del globo terráqueo.

El informe precisa que para el verano del año 2060 podrían haber desaparecido todos los océanos de hielo en la región.

2 nov. 2004

Prometheus caught stealing from Saturn's rings


In Greek mythology, Prometheus stole fire from the Gods. Now, Saturn’s tiny moon Prometheus is showing similar tendencies, repeatedly stealing material from planet’s rings, according to new images taken by the Cassini probe.

29 oct. 2004

Titan's complex and strange world revealed


Two days after Cassini's close encounter with Titan captured the first ever close-up images, it is becoming clear that Saturn's giant moon is a complex and strange world.

Its diverse geography is crossed by channels, ridges and great windblown streaks. Organic materials abound, and may even cover the moon entirely.

It was possible that Cassini would reveal a dead world covered in impact craters. But in fact Titan boasts an enormous variety of surface structures - and it is evolving. "Titan is an extremely dynamic and active place," says Jonathan Lunine at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, an interdisciplinary scientist with the Cassini mission.

Surprisingly, there is no clear sign of impact craters so far. There are some circular features that might be craters, but they have been largely eroded, or buried by organic material raining from the sky.

28 oct. 2004

Solo galaxy has dark matter cloak


The discovery of three "naked" galaxies - not cloaked in dark matter - shocked astronomers in 2003 and prompted an urgent hunt for more. But a detailed new X-ray observation of an isolated galaxy has not reproduced the finding, leading researchers to suggest galaxies may form or evolve in multiple ways.


Instituto de la paz y los conflictos

"Hobbit" se une a la familia humana

Arqueólogos australianos descubrieron lo que creen es una nueva y diminuta especie de ser humano: el homo floresiensis.

La nueva especie, bautizada "Hobbit" -porque su pequeño tamaño recuerda a los personajes de "El Señor de los Anillos" y otras obras del escritor JRR Tolkien-, habría vivido en la isla indonesa de Flores hace unos 18.000 años.

Los restos parciales de un primer esqueleto aparecieron a 5,9 metros de profundidad en una caverna de piedra caliza.

En un primer momento, los científicos pensaron que se trataba de los huesos fosilizados de un niño, pero tras los primeros estudios reconocieron que estaban en un error.

El desgaste de los dientes y las líneas de crecimiento del cráneo confirman que se trataba de un adulto, la forma de la pelvis la identificaba como una mujer y el fémur indicaba que caminaba erecta como el ser humano de hoy.

La llamaron Liang Bua 1 o LB1.

El homo floresiensis mide 1 metro de altura y tiene el cerebro más pequeño que el del hombre moderno, pero aparentemente utilizaba herramientas y ya conocía el fuego.

¿Nueva historia?

Tras desenterrar a Liang Bua 1, los arqueólogos descubrieron los restos de otros seis individuos de la misma especie.

Los investigadores piensan que el homo floresiensis podría descender del homo erectus y que vivía aislado en Flores.

Usualmente, las especies animales que viven en islas donde hay pocos predadores se van volviendo más pequeñas a lo largo de distintas generaciones.

Hasta ahora, se creía que el último pariente cercano del hombre moderno había muerto mucho antes de la época en que habría vivido el "hobbit".

Algunos expertos opinan que el descubrimiento es tan impresionante que rescribirá la historia de la evolución.

Pero otros han manifestado sus dudas de que se trate efectivamente de una especie humana.

27 oct. 2004

Los sistemas domóticos se resisten a entrar en el hogar

El Periódico

Los sistemas domóticos se resisten a entrar en el hogar

• El 75% de los compradores de pisos no ven prioritarios los aparatos inteligentes
• Promotores y fabricantes creen que el usuario aún no valora la innovación

El hogar inteligente, equipado con sistemas domóticos, se resiste a convertirse en realidad. Fabricantes de electrónica, operadoras, promotores, arquitectos, todos coinciden en que la domótica, que permite el control remoto del hogar, es, sin duda, el futuro. Pero también coinciden en que el usuario no está muy por la labor, en que no tiene la información suficiente y en que todavía percibe la domótica como algo lejano, caro, complejo y por lo que no vale la pena pagar.
"Hoy por hoy la domótica no es un elemento esencial que el usuario pida a la hora de comprar una casa", comenta Enric Reyna, presidente de la Asociación de Promotores de Barcelona. Reyna apoya sus palabras con una encuesta hecha en el salón Barcelona Meeting Point: "Sólo un 25,2% de encuestados ven la domótica como una prioridad esencial al comprar un piso, y en la mayoría de casos, se refiere a elementos de seguridad". De la misma opinión son los arquitectos: "Para nosotros diseñar casas preparadas para domótica no es complejo. La tecnología existe, pero no hay cultura de usuario en el tema", dice Francesc Labastida, asesor en tecnología del Colegio de Arquitectos de Catalunya.

Los electrodomésticos inteligentes y con conexión a internet son quizá los dispositivos domóticos más conocidos. BSH, por ejemplo, dispone de un modelo domótico de cada tipo de electrodoméstico. "Los frenos en la expansión de estos productos son un poco culpa de los fabricantes, que quizá no los hemos dado a conocer de forma masiva, y hay también una barrera tecnológica, ya que el usuario los ve complejos y caros", explica Jaime Compadre, responsable de producto domótico de BSH.
Compadre añade, sin embargo, que "en los últimos meses la percepción ha cambiado y la gente entiende más qué es el hogar domótico". Sin embargo, el proceso puede ser lento. Un informe de Gartner sitúa el éxito de la domótica en casa a 5-10 años vista.

A la falta de interés del usuario, además, se añade la falta de definición del mercado y el hecho de que los esfuerzos de los distintos agentes implicados no van siempre coordinados. Juan Arquero, de Telefónica, señaló durante las jornadas Aprop04 otros obstáculos a la expansión del hogar digital: "Faltan redes de acceso, hay demasiados estándares, sistemas propietarios y, sobre todo, falta una solución integrada que dé confianza al usuario".
Para Dan Bandera, director de estándares emergentes de IBM y miembro de la OSGI Alliance, el usuario debe tener paciencia: "El problema de la conectividad con banda ancha se va superando. Lo siguiente es simplificar los aparatos. Ahora sólo hay que esperar".

BBC Mundo - Cassini penetra el velo

25 oct. 2004

HP acerca un poco más a la realidad el papel electrónico


Hace tiempo que muchas compañías están probando diversas aproximaciones al problema de conseguir un papel electrónico flexible, delgado y que reúnas las características que lo hagan un producto comercializable y no un prototipo de laboratorio.

Ahora HP consigue dar un paso más en la dirección adecuada en uno de sus laboratorios de Gran Bretaña. La nueva tecnología de HP consiste en pantallas que literalmente se imprimen sobre papel.

El concepto es similar al de una pantalla LCD de cualquier ordenador: pequeños puntos sensibles a cambios eléctricos que representan los diferentes colores según se manipula la electricidad que pasa a través suyo.

Los prototipos que han conseguido crear en HP aun distan mucho de ser comercializables, pero ya cuentan con avances en este terreno, como la posibilidad de conseguir una superficie realmente flexible, o la opción de que las imágenes permanezcan en el papel aunque se corte el suministro eléctrico.

La tecnología aún tiene limitaciones, como por ejemplo que solo se consiguen imágenes con 125 colores, pero sin duda es un avance a tener en cuenta.

22 oct. 2004

La Agencia Nacional de Seguridad (NSA), de Estados Unidos, está desarrollando un centro de control de calidad de programas informáticos.


“El trabajo que estamos realizando puede ser comparado, a escala, con el Proyecto Manhattan”, comentó el director de informaciones de NSA, Daniel Wolf, a la entidad gubernamental de asuntos TI, FCW.com.

El Proyecto Manhattan fue una iniciativa de investigación que llevó a la creación de la primera bomba atómica hacia fines de la década de 1940, misma que posteriormente fue arrojada sobre dos ciudades japonesas.

NSA siente aprensiones en el sentido que los distintos estándares y vulnerabilidades del software comercial puedan constituir un riesgo de seguridad para Estados Unidos. A ello se suma que gran parte del software es desarrollado en países que no necesariamente son pro-estadounidenses.

Una de las compañías que se ha incorporado al proyecto es Microsoft.

21 oct. 2004

Experts fear escape of 1918 flu from lab


The 1918 flu virus spread across the world in three months and killed at least 40 million people. If it escaped from a lab today, the death toll could be far higher. “The potential implications of an infected lab worker – and spread beyond the lab – are terrifying,” says D. A. Henderson of the University of Pittsburgh, a leading biosecurity expert.

Yet despite the danger, researchers in the US are working with reconstructed versions of the virus at less than the maximum level of containment. Many other experts are worried about the risks. “All the virologists I have spoken to have concerns,” says Ingegerd Kallings of the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control in Stockholm, who helped set laboratory safety standards for the World Health Organization.

20 oct. 2004

Miniature jet engines could power cellphones


Engineers have moved a step closer to batch producing miniaturised, jet engine-based generators from a single stack of bonded silicon wafers. These chip-based “microengines” could one day power mobile electronic devices.

By spinning a tiny magnet above a mesh of interleaved coils etched into a wafer, David Arnold and Mark Allen of the Georgia Institute of Technology, US, have built the first silicon-compatible device capable of converting mechanical energy - produced by a rotating microturbine - into usable amounts of electrical energy.

19 oct. 2004

Gravity constant called into question


One of nature's venerable constants - gravity - may not be the same for every type of particle in the universe, suggest new calculations. The finding could explain a persistent mystery regarding how much helium was created in the first few minutes after the big bang, say physicists.

16 oct. 2004



A Dictionary of Comicbook Words on Historical Principles

Based on the Latest Conclusions of the Most Dubious Wordologists & Comprising Many Hundreds of New Words which Modern Literature, Science & Philosophy have Neglected to Acknowledge as True, Proper & Useful Terms & Which Have Never Before Been Published in Any Lexicon

11 oct. 2004

Hallan en el Congo chimpancés de dos metros con hábitos de gorila


La científica especialista en primates Shelly Williams, profesora en la Universidad de Georgia, en Estados Unidos, cree haber descubierto un nuevo tipo de simio gigante en la República Democrática del Congo. Miden dos metros y comparten características de los gorilas y los chimpancés.

En un artículo que "New Scientist" publicará la semana próxima y que hoy adelantó la BBC, Williams explica su encuentro en la jungla con los monos, que parecen compartir características de los gorilas y los chimpancés.

Tienen dos metros de alto y hacen sus guaridas en la tierra y no en los árboles, como los gorilas. Sin embargo, no viven cerca de ninguna población de gorila y, además, su dieta es parecida a la del chimpancé.

Según los habitantes de la zona, en el norte del Congo, los monos son feroces y capaces de matar incluso leones. Williams, sin embargo, explica que cuando un grupo de cuatro de estos animales la vieron, "se mantuvieron en silencio, se pararon y desaparecieron".

Si, como se sospecha, se trata de una nueva especie, el hallazgo sería uno de los más importantes en décadas. Los científicos barajan varias teorías sobre estos simios: que son una nueva especie; que son chimpancés gigantes pero se comportan como gorilas; o que son híbridos, el producto del apareamiento entre gorilas y chimpancés.

10 oct. 2004

Black holes haunt ghost particle theory


The theory that claims to solve cosmology’s major mysteries by proposing that empty space is filled with a fluid of ghostly particles may, literally, be going down the cosmic drain. According to the latest calculations, the universe’s black holes would be slurping up any such fluid.

The ghost condensate theory, proposed last year, is a modified form of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. It posits an all-pervading fluid of massless particles that exhibits a repulsive gravity, making it behave like an elastic band that stores more and more energy as it stretches out.

The theory’s attraction for cosmologists is that it promises to explain at a stroke three of their most pressing conundrums: the nature of the dark energy that is pushing the universe apart, the nature of the dark matter that holds spinning galaxies together, and what it was that caused the universe to undergo a rapid inflation just after the Big Bang

8 oct. 2004

Scioto Spirit Seekers

Una pantalla que muestra imágenes en 3D sin necesidad de usar gafas especiales


La compañía japonesa Nichia ha desarrollado, en una investigación conjunta con la Universidad de Tokushima, una nueva tecnología LED capaz de mostrar imágenes en 3D.

La novedad es que para poder verlas tan solo hay que mirar directamente a la pantalla, y no hará falta el uso de gafas u otro tipo de dispositivos.

El prototipo que se presentó en una reciente conferencia tenía un tamaño de 146x77 centímetros, con una resolución aproximada de 18.000 píxeles.

Funciona generando dos imágenes ligeramente desplazadas, “engañando” al cerebro al crear imágenes diferentes para cada ojo, y creando la sensación de tridimensionalidad.

Actualmente se encuentra en fase de pruebas y es un prototipo, con lo que la tecnología dista mucho de estar madura para el mercado. Aun así nos parece realmente interesante, y un primer paso para llegar a tener pantallas que muestren o proyecten imágenes en tres dimensiones sin necesidad de que nos pongamos gafas.

Device translates spoken Japanese and English


A handheld device that enables a user to chat in another language - without having to learn any words or phrases for themselves - has been developed by Japanese electronics firm NEC.

The system is about the size of a handheld PDA and converts spoken Japanese to English and vice versa. It is planned for launch in Japan in the next few months.

It consists of three components - a speech recognition engine, translation software and a voice generator. Spoken English or Japanese is recognised and converted into text by the speech recognition engine. The text is then converted from Japanese to English or the other way by translation software and the resulting text is vocalised by a voice synthesiser. The entire process takes about one second.

The system will initially be aimed at Japanese tourists and business travellers and be available only in Japan. But Akitoshi Okumura, the NEC researcher behind the system, says there is no reason why it cannot be adapted for other languages.

7 oct. 2004

Arqueólogos japoneses y mongoles descubren las posibles ruinas del palacio de Gengis Khan


Un equipo de arqueólogos japonés y mongol ha descubierto las que podrían ser las ruinas del gran palacio y del mausoleo de Gengis Khan en el este de Mongolia, según informó hoy un arqueólogo japonés, quien espera descubrir próximamente la tumba del caudillo mongol.

Las ruinas del palacio y de un mausoleo colindante, del siglo XIII y de un perímetro de 600.000 metros cuadrados, fueron exhumados a unos 250 kilómetros al suroreste de Ulam Bator, precisó Noriyuki Shiraishi, profesor asistente a la universidad de Niigata y jefe de la misión nipona

Un estudio indica que algunos tiranosaurios sí que tuvieron plumas, informa 'Nature'


Aunque sería exagerado decir que el prehistórico tiranosaurio Rex tuvo plumas, un nuevo estudio, desarrollado por investigadores de la Academia China de Ciencias de Beijing revela que los primeros parientes que se conocen de este animal sí que portaron unas 'proto-plumas' sobre su piel.

Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States


5 oct. 2004

Robotic capsule to crawl through intestines


A capsule designed to crawl though a patient's stomach, enabling doctors to view and even treat an internal ailment remotely, has been developed by an international research team.

Researchers from the Sant'Anna Valdera Centre in Pontedera, Italy and the Korean Institute of Science and Technology in Seoul, Korea, have developed a prototype crawling system.

Current endoscopies require a patient to swallow a capsule equipped with a camera that transmits images back outside the body. This enables a doctor to remotely examine the tract for potential problems. The capsule is passed through the patient's gastrointestinal tract by the motion of their digestive system.

But the team led by Paolo Dario at Polo Sant'Anna Valdera believes endoscopies could be improved using surgical capsules with a multitude of legs, allowing them to crawl slowly to a particular part of a patient's intestines.

"After swallowing, the protective coating would dissolve and locomotion would begin," Dario told New Scientist. "The idea is to improve current techniques for full gastrointestinal endoscopies."

4 oct. 2004

Your Guide to English Life, Culture and Customs


We have received many e-mails from our visitors who want information on England and Britain, for a school project. In this section of our web site, our students answer some of those questions. You will find out about our home, family and religious life as well as schools and how we spend our leisure time.

Scroll down the page to see the questions we have been asked or take a look at our index of Topics to find what you are looking for.

Your Guide to Languages on the Web


iLoveLanguages is a comprehensive catalog of language-related Internet resources. The more than 2000 links at iLoveLanguages have been hand-reviewed to bring you the best language links the Web has to offer. Whether you're looking for online language lessons, translating dictionaries, native literature, translation services, software, language schools, or just a little information on a language you've heard about, iLoveLanguages probably has something to suit your needs.

To use iLoveLanguages, click on one of the tabs near the top of the page to browse our database of Web sites, or use the Search box to look for sites matching your criteria. The buttons below the tabs let you learn more about iLoveLanguages, suggest a new site to add, or contact us.

Iker Jiménez


Research in International and Cross-cultural Management


On this page you will find some information about the British educational system. Some of its characteristics may be familiar to you; others may (literally) seem foreign.

Top Ten Conspiracy Theories of 2002


The year following the Sept. 11 attacks has seen a staggering proliferation of conspiracy theories -- some alarming, some intriguing, and many just plain wacky.

The Conspiracy Theory Research List


A conspiracy theorist is a modern day heretic. Through its control of the media and ultimately the historical record itself, the established power structure denies the exposure of the hidden conspiratorial framework which allows it to operate with impunity.

In studying conspiracy theory, one finds many differing stories and spins. Myself, I am researching to understand and hopefully help in a my own little way to bring peace into this beautiful mudball we call home. Conspiracy research customarily delves into questions of evil motives and agendas. I believe evil is what man makes it. Man's free will is the variable in life's equation. The devil doesn't "make" people do things -- people choose to commit evil acts.

Based on my own research, I believe that a network or networks of multi-generational cults are fomenting conspiracy against mankind. Are there any good guys, really? Are there bad guys? Who's to know? Like I said, there are many stories and many spins, all of which deserve much wider public debate in a forum such as CTRL. My personal take is that there is a definite group of "baddies" that move through various organizations at differing times and locales, similar to the plans which Adam Wieshaupt outlined in the Illuminati papers, which were seized by the Bavarian Government. (And there are those that put a whole another layer of conspiracy about that revelation).

The Internet's Most Popular Conspiracy Discussion Forum


Welcome to the Internet's most popular destination for news, discussion, and debate on government conspiracies, cover-ups, UFO's, and other alternative topics.

¡Ojo, tienes un pirata en la fotocopiadora!


El problema de una red universal es que es eso, global. Según informa ZDNet, Google almacena miles de millones de referencias sobre cualquier tipo de datos que emita un servidor web. Los hackers lo saben, y están aprendiendo a hacer minería de datos utilizando simplemente la información suministrada en las cachés de Google.

Sin ser demasiado experto, se puede penetrar en algunas de las redes en las que se integran fotocopiadoras, y acceder a lo que éstas están haciendo. Dicho de otra forma, el hacker, sentado en su casa, puede estar “viendo” qué fotocopias se están haciendo en estas máquinas. Una oferta confidencial que está siendo fotocopiada puede así pasar al ordenador del pirata que puede hacer con ella lo que quiera.

La capacidad de los motores de búsqueda para almacenar todo tipo de datos de un servidor web los convieerte en idóneos para realizar una ingeniería inversa en cualquier red. El ejemplo de lo que pueden hacer con una fotocopiadora es sólo uno de los últimos agujeros que se han descubierto; los piratas informáticos llevan años aprendiendo a utilizar Google y otros motores de búsqueda para dar mayor profundidad a sus hazañas.

Google puede convertirse en un Ferrari en manos de piratas informáticos bien documentados, que conocen sus capacidades a la perfección y explotan sus prestaciones en beneficio de sus aventuras ilegales. Ni que decir tiene que Google no puede hacer nada contra ello porque el uso que estos piratas hacen de su buscador no se puede distinguir con facilidad del habitual en un navegante normal.

Otro de los trucos más conocidos tiene que ver con su actuación como “buen samaritano”. Muchos hackers se dedican a ayudar a los empleados de una empresa con dificultades técnicas hasta ganar su confianza y, en muchos casos, las contraseñas de acceso a sus barreras de seguridad.

Cuidado con los amigos que haga por la Red. Sobre todo si se comportan como si lo fueran de toda la vida.

3 oct. 2004

Drugs delivered by robots in the blood


A microscopic swimming robot unveiled by Chinese scientists could eventually be used for drug delivery or to clear arteries in humans, say researchers.

The 3 millimetre-long triangular machine was constructed by Tao Mei of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, and colleagues from the University of Science and Technology of China.

The craft is propelled using an external magnetic field which controls its microscopic fins. The fins are made from an alloy that contracts in response to application of the field. Applying the field quickly makes the tiny submersible paddle forwards and gradually switching the field off slowly moves the fins back to their original position.

It is possible to control the speed of the craft by altering the resonant frequency of the magnetic field. The next stage is to build a robot with fins that respond to different magnetic field resonances. This would enable an operator to control the fin separately and steer the robot around.

1 oct. 2004

Huellas dactilares... en sus documentos


Todos conocemos la frustración de pinchar en un enlace para encontrarnos con una página que nos recibe con un mensaje del tipo "Lo sentimos, este documento ya no está visible en esta página. Intente volver a buscarlo desde la Home", o algún otro similar.

Ahora, según cuenta BBC News, unos estudiantes británicos que trabajan en IBM han desarrollado una aplicación capaz de detectar cambios en las webs, y acabar de una vez por todas con los enlaces rotos y pérdida de documentos que han cambiado de localización sin documentarlo de la forma adecuada.

El sistema, que se denomina Peridot, escanea los enlaces incluidos en una página web o en una intranet, y sustituye los que apuntan a páginas inexistentes o desfasadas por información o enlaces relevantes. El programa es capaz de convertir un documento en una especie de huella digital, similar a las dactilares que se utilizan para reconocer personas, pero que sirve para marcar sus contenidos y reconocer cuando cambian. De esta forma, una página que ha cambiado de lugar es rápidamente detectada y se se puede seguir su rastro por toda la Web o intranet.

Alcanzan nuevo hito en el cifrado cuántico


La compañía suiza de investigaciones idQuantique se ha asociado al proveedor de servicios Internet DeckPoint de Ginebra, para abrir el primer centro de respaldo de datos protegido con tecnología de cifrado cuántico. El proyecto, por ahora en etapa de pruebas, demostrará que el cifrado cuántico puede funcionar en la práctica.

En el período de pruebas se transferirán copias de seguridad de los 30 servidores de Deckpoint Housing Center hacia las máquinas de Internet Exchange Point, de Cern. La distancia entre ambos centros es de aproximadamente 10 kilómetros, y la tecnología de cifrado cuántico asegurará que sea imposible captar la información durante la transmisión.

En teoría, los sistemas de cifrado cuántico son imposibles de interceptar. La información es codificada en fotones que no pueden ser interceptados sin arruinar el contenido del mensaje.

30 sept. 2004

Robot uses whiskers to get around


A robot with real mouse whiskers could represent an important step towards developing simple robots that navigate by mimicking rodents. Such whiskered machines could eventually be used to perform repairs in pipes.

The bristly bot, known as AMouse (Artificial Mouse) was built by researchers from the University of Tokyo in Japan and the University of Zurich in Switzerland. It uses real mouse whiskers because simulations have shown these to be the perfect size and shape for the task, but artificial whiskers will also be developed eventually.

29 sept. 2004

Optical technique promises terabyte disks


A novel method of optical data storage could soon be used to hold a terabyte of data on a disk the size of a normal DVD, say researchers at Imperial College London, UK.

Information is encoded on a normal DVD in the form of microscopic indents on the surface of the disk. The presence or absence of an indent corresponds to a binary piece of information - a ‘1’ or a ‘0’. Indents are detected by beaming light onto a disk with a laser and measuring the amount of light that bounces back.

Using tracks embedded at several depths within a disk, it is possible to store more data on the highest capacity disks. Multilayer DVDs hold about 16 gigabytes of data, which equals about 8 hours of high quality video.

But the researchers realised that the polarity of light might also be used to encode information. They developed a type of disk that incorporates angled ridges within the pits in order to subtly alter the polarity of the light that gets reflected. This can be used to store 10 times’ more data than is currently possible, they say.

27 sept. 2004

La NASA mandará una sonda a Plutón en el año 2006


La NASA ha puesto en marcha sus planes para iniciar la exploración de Plutón con el viaje de la sonda 'New Horizons', que tardará casi diez años en llegar al más distante y pequeño de los planetas del Sistema Solar. Según los plazos, la nave partirá de Cabo Cañaveral en enero de 2006

24 sept. 2004

La Agencia Espacial Europea descubre una colisión de galaxias


Un grupo internacional de astrónomos ha utilizado datos del Observatorio XMM de la Agencia Espacial Europea para descubrir una enorme colisión de grupos galácticos, se informó oficialmente este viernes.

En una conferencia de prensa telefónica, los astrónomos dijeron que el choque estelar es como la colisión de dos grandes frentes meteorológicos en la Tierra y ocupa un espacio cósmico de unos tres millones de años luz, es decir de unos 283,5 billones de kilómetros.

Sin embargo, advirtieron de que no representa ningún peligro para la Tierra, pues está ocurriendo a unos 800 millones de años luz.

"El panorama del clima cósmico muestra una tormenta y el pronóstico de buen tiempo es bueno a largo plazo, es decir unos 7.000 millones de años", dijo Patrick Henry, astrónomo de la Universidad de Hawai.

Uno de los grupos galácticos está integrado por unas mil galaxias y el otro es de 300, similar al del conjunto estelar donde reside la Vía Láctea.

Los científicos señalaron que los datos proporcionados por el Observatorio de la Agencia Espacial Europea son los mejores que se tienen hasta ahora de la violenta fusión de galaxias.

Según señalaron, con esos datos podrán aprender cómo se formaron esas enormes constelaciones en las primeras etapas del desarrollo del Universo.

Ancient sea creature sucked in prey


A bizarre marine reptile used a neck nearly twice the length of its body to capture its prey, 230 million years ago. Fish saw only its small head in murky waters and, when they came too close, the animal quickly expanded its formidable throat to suck in its dinner.

The astonishing length of the neck of Dinocephalosaurus was revealed when a near complete skeleton was unearthed in China by Chun Li of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, in Beijing. The length took researchers by surprise, since the reptile had previously been known from only a fossil skull.

21 sept. 2004

Marte: datos reveladores


Nueva información obtenida sobre los patrones de distribución del vapor de agua y el gas metano en la atmósfera de Marte, puede tener importantes repercusiones en la hipótesis de la existencia de vida en el planeta rojo.

Estos datos fueron provistos por la sonda espacial de la Agencia Espacial Europea, Mars Express.

Si el gas metano existente en la atmósfera marciana es producido por microbios, estos a su vez dependen del agua para vivir.

Y es precisamente esta relación entre estas dos ideas, lo que ha despertado el interés de los científicos.

19 sept. 2004

Weight-Loss challenge


How much physical activity do you need to do to lose weight and improve your health? Most experts recommend at least 30 minutes a day of moderate-intensity activity for health benefits, but many say 45 to 60 minutes is necessary if you're trying to lose weight and keep it off.

18 sept. 2004

Code created for shape-shifting robots


Robots that change shape and even split into smaller parts to explore unfamiliar terrain could soon be feasible thanks to new algorithms designed to enable such metamorphic tricks.

Zack Butler and colleagues at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire, US, developed algorithms to control robots made from identical components, each capable of moving on their own but also able to attach to one another. As this is beyond current hardware, they constructed virtual modular bots and used a software simulator to test them.

The modular robot can move along as a complete unit, built up of around 100 smaller parts. But when faced with an impassable obstacle, some of these modules can detach and proceed as a smaller unit, or even on their own.

Once the obstacle has been passed, however, the smaller units will automatically recombine into the larger whole, enabling them to travel over different terrain once more.

16 sept. 2004

Software bug raises spectre of 'JPEG of death'


Flawed software code used by numerous Microsoft applications to render images mean that a specially constructed image file could hijack a computer or spread a virus.

Ten years ago the idea of an image infecting a computer was the subject of a hoax email. But what was once a myth is now a genuine threat after Microsoft disclosed a flaw in the image processing code used in a range of its software programs on Tuesday.

Some experts blame the new threat on shoddy programming. "In a properly coded world, a graphic should not be able to infect your computer," says Graham Cluley, senior researcher with the UK-based anti-virus firm Sophos. "It should be impossible."

So far, no one is known to have exploited the flaw and Cluley says it is far from certain anyone will develop a computer virus based on it. But code designed to exploit the bug could appear on the internet soon, and this is often the first step towards the creation of a hacking tool or virus based on the flaw.

11 sept. 2004

Article: Self-sustaining killer robot creates a stink


It may eat flies and stink to high heaven, but if this robot works, it will be an important step towards making robots fully autonomous.

To survive without human help, a robot needs to be able to generate its own energy. So Chris Melhuish and his team of robotics experts at the University of the West of England in Bristol are developing a robot that catches flies and digests them in a special reactor cell that generates electricity.

9 sept. 2004

Hallan en Marte un antiguo mar de superficie superior al Báltico


Los dos vehículos de exploración de la NASA que rastrean la superficie de Marte, el 'Opportunity' y el 'Spirit', han descubierto que en el Planeta Rojo pudo existir un gran mar con una superficie superior a la del mar Báltico o a la de los Grandes Lagos.

Según un artículo que publica el último número de la revista 'Nature', la región que rodea a la zona de aterrizaje de los vehículos pudo tener una masa de agua superior a los 330.000 kilómetros cuadrados.

8 sept. 2004

Proponen Arca de Noé lunar


El jefe científico de la Agencia Espacial Europea, Bernard Foing, propuso la creación de una especie de Arca de Noé en la Luna en caso de que la Tierra sea destruida por un asteroide o un holocausto.

El científico sugirió crear un banco con el ADN de cada una de las especies de plantas y animales sobre el planeta.

Foing es el encargado de las misiones europeas a la Luna.

Su preocupación es que en caso de que la Tierra se enfrente con un cataclismo global quede poco o nada de la rica diversidad del planeta, lo cual se vería solventado mediante la construcción de un archivo de ADN en la Luna.

6 sept. 2004

5 sept. 2004

Encyclopedia Mythica: mythology, folklore, and religion.


The Encyclopedia Mythica is an online encyclopedia on mythology, folklore, and legends. It currently contains over 6,100 entries on gods and goddesses, heroes, legendary creatures and beings from all over the world.



Viewing military logistics of the Middle Ages by modern standards provides insight into today's Quartermaster functions. This study will compare some modern classes of supply - Class I (subsistence), Class II (clothing and individual equipment), Class III (petroleum, oils and lubricants), Class IV (construction materiel), Class V (ammunition), Class VI (personal demand items such as sundry packs), Class VII (major end items such as trucks and tanks), Class VIII (medical supplies) and Class IX (repair parts) - to the supply systems that dominated military campaigns in the Middle Ages, 1000 to 1400 AD. The logistical functions of manning, arming, fueling, fixing, sustaining and moving will overlay the comparisons.

3 sept. 2004

Mysterious signals from 1000 light years away


In February 2003, astronomers involved in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) pointed the massive radio telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, at around 200 sections of the sky.

The same telescope had previously detected unexplained radio signals at least twice from each of these regions, and the astronomers were trying to reconfirm the findings. The team has now finished analysing the data, and all the signals seem to have disappeared. Except one, which has got stronger.

This radio signal, now seen on three separate occasions, is an enigma. It could be generated by a previously unknown astronomical phenomenon. Or it could be something much more mundane, maybe an artefact of the telescope itself.

But it also happens to be the best candidate yet for a contact by intelligent aliens in the nearly six-year history of the SETI@home project, which uses programs running as screensavers on millions of personal computers worldwide to sift through signals picked up by the Arecibo telescope.

Exploded View's


Here are some exploded firearms drawings and parts lists. As time and space permit I will do more. If you would like to see a specific drawing here, that information to me. Thanks.

1 sept. 2004

Astrónomos estadounidenses descubren dos planetas del tamaño de la Tierra


Una semana después de que astrónomos europeos anunciaran el descubrimiento del "planeta extrasolar más pequeño", la agencia espacial de Estados Unidos ha proclamado el hallazgo de otros dos planetas ajenos al Sistema Solar de menor tamaño. Los astros son de un tamaño similar a la Tierra y de una masa comparable a la de Neptuno.

"Estos son descubrimientos excitantes, muy importantes", dijo Anne Kinney, directora de ciencias de la agencia espacial estadounidense (NASA), en una conferencia de prensa en la que se presentaron los hallazgos de dos equipos de astrónomos.

26 ago. 2004

Descubren planeta similar a la Tierra

BBC Mundo

Científicos europeos hallaron el planeta similar a la Tierra más pequeño nunca antes descubierto, orbitando alrededor de una estrella fuera de nuestro sistema solar.

El planeta en cuestión es 14 veces más grande que la Tierra y está lo suficientemente cerca de la estrella, por lo cual los científicos suponen que su superficie no está congelada.

El doctor Nuno Santos de la Universidad de Lisboa, lo describió como una especie de "Super Tierra".

Santos se refirió a este descubrimiento durante el Foro Abierto de Euro Ciencia llevado a cabo en Estocolmo, Suecia.

Según Santos el descubrimiento establece un nuevo récord, siendo el planeta más pequeño descubierto hasta el momento que gira en torno a una estrella semejante al sol.

El hallazgo fue hecho utilizando el espectógrafo de alta sensibilidad Harps del Observatorio Meridional Europeo La Silla, ubicado en el cerro La Silla, en el desierto de Atacama en Chile, a 2.400 metros sobre el nivel del mar.

El planeta orbita alrededor de la estrella Mu Arae, en la constelación Altar, que puede verse desde el hemisferio sur.

Es el segundo planeta orbitando alrededor de la estrella y su traslación se completa en 9 días y medio.

Según Francois Bouchyof del Laboratorio de Astrofísica de Marsella, "no sólo los datos del Harps confirman lo que creíamos saber con anterioridad sobre esta estrella, sino que también nos mostró que hay un planeta adicional en órbita".